Verilog for Loop – Syntax, and Examples

Verilog for Loop

Verilog is a Hardware Description Language(HDL). Language is used to explain a digital system like a network switch, microprocessors, memory, or flip-flop. To simplify the work of people in designing the integrated circuits, drawing transistors and connections, VHDL came into use. Verilog only asks the user to input the ideation, and the automatic tools convert it into actual hardware using logic gates and sequential gates. We will discuss Verilog for Loop here.

Verilog for Loop

Verilog for loop is the most common behavioral modeling used to repeat hardware in the integrated circuit. It works on the idea of repeating a certain set of sentences till the condition is true. When the condition is not met, the loop skips the commands and moves on. It mainly consists of three major parts: initialization, evaluation, and update. It is mostly used because it makes the repetition of a block easier, shorter, and less time-consuming.

Syntax:

for(<initial_condition>; <condition> ; <step_assignment>) begin

      //statements

End

Hardware Schematic

It is a pictorial representation of the use of gates to achieve a particular hardware functionality. We can encapsulate the internal details in a black box if we know the combination to attain the result. The block gives us a result similar to a hardware diagram which is made using combinational gates.

Verilog Supporting Designs 

Verilog supports many designs at many levels. Some of them are categorized as important like the follows:

  • Behavioral Level: It is sequential, which means the set of commands is executed one by one. The main elements are blocks, functions, etc.

  • Register-Transfer Level: It specifies the characteristics of a circuit by the transfer of data and operations between the registers. Any synthesizable code is called an RTL code.

  • Gate Level: The features of a system are defined by logical links and their timing properties within a logical level. They can only have definite logical values. For logical designing, it may not come as the best option. Synthesis tools make gate-level code. For the simulation and back end, his netlist is used.

  • Others:
    • Lexical Tokens: One or more characters comprise a token. Each character is in a token. The basic tokens are the same as the C programming language, like keywords, identifiers, variables, etc. The language is case-sensitive, and all keywords are in small cases.
    • White Spaces: They can contain characters for spaces, tabs, newlines, etc. If they are not treated as another token, they are mostly ignored. In most languages, white spaces include blank spaces, tabs, etc.
    • Comments: They are extra lines used to explain codes that are not included in the run of the code. There are two ways:- Single line using // and double line using /* and ending with */.
    • Numbers: We can give all types of numbers like binary,octal and hexadecimal. Syntax:- <size> <radix> <value>
    • Identifiers: It is used to define the name of variables, functions, objects, etc.
    • Operators: To operate variables and set up a relation. Eg :- >,+,= etc.
    • Keywords: They are pre-define words by the coder of language to make language easy and uniform.

For Loop

The keyword for the loop is for. The loop mainly consists of three parts that are as follows:

  • Initialization: I The loop is given an initial value of signals.
  • Evaluation: The next part is to check whether the condition provided is true and could be executed.
  • Step-value: The change in the initial value for the next iteration.

All three parts of the loop are given initially, unlike the while loop, which is more generally used when the loop has to be iterated as long as the condition is true. The for loop has a start and end defined by change or step value.

For ex:

[email protected](d or e) begin

For (j=0; j<20; j=i+1) begin

       d<=d+1; //executes the loop for 20 times

end

end

Some examples of for loop:

// The circuit input goes into the first register

shift[0]=circuit_in ;

// A for loop to shift the contents of the register 

for (j=1;j<4;j=j+1) begin

     shift[j]=shift[j-1];

end

Gate Level Modelling

There are in-built libraries that are rarely used for drawing but used in real-world applications.

There are two major properties:

  1. Drive Strength: The intensity of the output depends on the type of connection between. If the connection is direct, it is maximum, whereas it keeps on decreasing in conducting transistor and pull-up/downs resistor, respectively. It is mostly not mentioned, but defaults are strong1 and strong0.
  2. Delays: If the delay is absent, then there are no propagation delays between the gates. But if it is mentioned, then the first one is a rise, and another one is a fall. In the case of only one mention, then both rise and fall are equal.

Gate Primitives:

Gate uses keywords like and, or, XOR, etc. for one output when input is N integers.

Example:

  • Reg t0, t1, t2, it3;
  • Not B1(o0, t0);
  • Xor B2(o1, t1, t2, t3);
  • And B3(o2, t2, t3, t0);

Transmission Gate Primitives:

This includes both buffers and inverters. They have several outputs for one input. Example:- Not, buf, bufifo, etc.

Example:

  • Reg t0,t1;
  • Not B1(o0,t0);
  • Buf B2(o0,t0);

Data Types

Value Set:

  • 0 – the false condition
  • 1- true conditions
  • X- unknown logic value
  • Z- high impedance

Wire:

It is used for the connection of gates and modules. Its value can only be read and can not store value. The wire is driven by continuous assignment or by connection to an output gate.

Some specific types of wire:

  • Wand (wired and)
  • Wor (wired or)
  • Tri (three-state)

Example:

  • Wor[msb:lsb] variable list
  • Wand [msb:lsb] variable list
  • Tri [msb:lsb] variable list 

Register:

It holds the value for the procedural assignment and is used in blocks and functions. Unsigned numbers and sign extensions are the forms in which data is stored in multi-bit registers.

Example:

  • reg c;
  • reg [5:0] gem;

Input, Output, and Inout:

They are the keywords used to enter or acquire data for the gates or modules. Input and Inout are wires, but the output can be different data types like tri, wand, etc. The standard data type for both is wire.

Example:

  • Input c;
  • Output a,b;

Integer:

They are general-purpose variables commonly used in loops, constants, etc. They are of reg type, except they store the data in the type of signed data, unlike reg, which saves in unsigned. The default is 32 bits adjusted to minimum width by the synthesizer at the time of compilation in constants.

Example:

  • Integer c;
  • Assign a=63;

Time:

It is a 64-bit quantity used to hold only simulation time and is not available for synthesis.

Example:

  • time c;
  • c=$time;

Operators

  • Arithmetic Operators: They are mostly used for basic or complicated math problems of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.

Example:

  • h=b+d
  • i=d-v
  • Relational Operators: They revert the result as a single bit, either 0 or 1, by comparing two operands. Some of the operators used along with their work are as follows:
    • <= less than or equal
    • == equal to
    • != not equal to 
    • < less than
    • >greater than
    • >= greater than or equal to
  • Bitwise Operators: They make the comparison of every bit. Some of the examples, along with their tasks, are as follows:
    • Bitwise AND &
    • Bitwise OR |
    • Bitwise XOR ^
    • Bitwise XNOR ~^ or ^~
  • Logical Operators: They mostly give single-bit results and also work on single operands. They can work with expressions, variables, etc. For working with expressions they are mostly used in conditional commands. Some of them, along with their symbols, are as follows:
    • Logical Not!
    • Logical And &&
    • Logical OR ||
  • Reduction Operators: They operate on an operand vector of all bits giving the result a single value. They are mostly said as the unary form of Bitwise operators. Some of them are stated as follows:
    • Reduction NOR ~|
    • Reduction NAND ~&
    • Reduction XOR ^
    • Reduction XNOR ~^
  • Shift Operators: The first operand is shifted by the number of bits by the second syntax. If no value is provided, then it is automatically fed as zero. Some of them are:
    • << shift left 
    • >> shift right
  • Replication Operator: It prints many copies of an item. The operator used is {n(item)} replicated n folds
  • Conditional Operator: It helps in running a set of commands based on whether the condition is true or false.

Syntax:

Condition? The result if the condition is true – 

The result if the condition is false

Operands

  • Literals: They are operands that have a constant value. The two used ones are:-
    • String: They are dimensional arrays enclosed in double quotes.
    • Numeric: A number in the octal, hexadecimal, and binary.

Example:

  • n- number of bits
  • F- possible formats
  • o- octal
  • d- decimal
  • h- hexadecimal
  • Bit-Selection and Part-Selection: They select one or more bits from different vectors like wire, reg, etc., using []. They are used in the same way as the main data objectives.

Example:

  • b=t[7] & s[7]
  • e=h[7:4] + g[3:0]
  • Function Calls: It is used to call a function in an expression regardless of assigning them to a variable. The user must keep the bit of the return value in mind while using it.

Syntax:

Function chk_yz;

Modules:

  • Module Declaration: The lines specify the name and port list, and the next few lines define the input/ output width. The default width and port are 1 bit and wire, respectively.

Example:

module sub_add(add, in1, in2, out);

  • Continuous Assignment: For assigning a value to a wire, it is used. This is mostly done by explicit assign statement and is consciously changed with every simulation.

Example:

  • Assign t=a|b
  • Assign h=c & d
  • Module Instantiations: Instantiations are done inside other modules for every bit except for the top-level module. They are templates for real objects.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the difference between while and for loop? The while loop tests the condition after a loop is completed, whereas for loop doesn’t start without checking the condition. Mostly the while loop is used if we want to run for a given condition.
  2. What is a forever loop? This type of loop continues going forever until the user does not terminate it.
  3. What is the difference between VHD and Verilog? The VHD is an older version of the Verilog. It is more advanced and is easier to use with the basics of programming.

Also read Top 20 UVM Interview Questions [2021] And Answers

Verilog for Loop – Syntax, and Examples

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