Spring Security is a framework, and it is the de-facto standard for securing web-based or spring-based applications. Web-level security is the most important for every network user, and everyone will expect it. Just think that if we are working on a web-based project, what about the security for all the data? It is essential, right?. So, this spring, protection is used to secure our web-based or enterprise-level projects. Today, we’ll know some of the Spring Security Interview Questions 2021.
Spring Security is not a default one, but we have to configure it. Web developers seem to find it difficult when doing it for the first time. It used to provide the login credentials, i.e., Username and Password. The key terms and the main work of spring security are Authentication and Authorization to Java Applications.
Authentication means confirming that the user logging in and the already signed up user are the same. For example, it will be sending an OTP to ensure those things. Authorization means verifying users by asking for their proof to access particular data or folders, like requesting a password or fingerprint to access the files, which the admin only maintained. It has the power of allowing a user or not allowing. Spring Security combinedly does these two things.
Most Asked and Basic Spring Security Interview Questions
If you have mentioned spring security in your resume, the interviewer will start asking you about spring security and how you configure spring security in your spring boot applications?
We have already discussed what spring security is. So, let’s just skip that question- What is Spring Security? And let’s see the other questions.
Here are the most frequently asked Spring security Interview questions. Let’s start with the first question!
1. Why is Spring Security needed in your application?
For example, when we have a Java Application, we want your clients to use that application. So, what happens next? First, we need a server to deploy the application. On that, we have an operating system on which JVM installs. JVM(Java Virtual Machine) allows a computer to run a Java program. And the next level contains TOMCAT, which is the application server. On that, we’ll finally have the application deployed. So, these are the levels to proceed to make the application available to the clients.
What is the thing is that all those things secured except application. So, at this point, spring-security makes the application confirmed. We should understand how to use spring security and how to configure it. Thus, spring security is needed in the first place to make our application secured.
2. How does Spring Security secure your application?
If we want to log in to an application, first, we need to go to that app through the link. And the very first page will ask us to enter User ID and Password. Only if the login credentials are correct can we log in. It’s a kind of authentication, and it’s for security purposes. Thus, spring-security performs its work at this point. And the next step is an authorization. If we want to access a particular thing into the application, we need to be authorized. So, this is the way spring security secures the application.
3. What are the kinds of authentication?
Knowledge-based authentication, Possession-based authentication, and Knowledge and possession-based authentication are the three types of authentication.
Knowledge-based applications have three types. The first one is the password. So giving a User ID and password when we want to sign-up for an application is the first type of Knowledge-based application. It’s related to remembering our password, so it comes under this Knowledge-based application.
The second type is a pin. When we want to register quickly, some applications ask for a four-digit pin to register, for example, Facebook. So, It is the second step to creating an account for the application. The third type is answering security questions that we already set when we started the report for the first time. So, these are all knowledge-based authentication.
Then, possession-based authentication has three ways to enter into the application. First, they are OTP or text messages which will send to our mobile phone. And the next one is entering using key cards or badges issued by the company you are working for. The third way is logging in by accessing tokens that were issued for the employees by the company. So we can access the application in these three ways. These are all possession-based authentication.
The next one is combined authentication which includes both knowledge-based and possession-based authentications. Some applications ask for both login and credentials and verify OTP. So, both knowledge and possession have so that this is under this type. Or log in to AWS systems or VDIs also under this type. Logging in by using these steps are high secured applications.
These are types of authentication through which spring security secures the applications.
4. What are the core concepts of Spring security?
It is a fundamental question that every interviewer asked if your resume has the word spring security. There are five core concepts in Spring Security. They are Authentication, Authorization, Principal, Granted Authority, and Roles.
Already we have cleared the first two things, which are authentication and authorization. Authentication means identifying who we are when we try to access an application by asking username and password. And approval means identifying a user who is allowed or not to do that particular operation or log in.
The principal is nothing but logged-in users. The one who has authenticated after giving correct login credentials becomes a principal of the application. Granting authority means it includes the group of permissions that are allowed to a user.
Now, roles mean a group of authorities assigned to the people. For example, a user has the power to log in and search into the application, but an admin has the authority to log in, explore, create, and update the application. These are the roles that are assigned together to the user and admin, respectively.
5. What is DelegatingFilterProxy in Spring Security?
DelegatingFilterProxy is the initial point of Spring Security in Java Applications.
Spring Security based on the Servlet filters. DelegationFilterProxy is one of the Servlet Filters implementations which works as a root Filter. So the first step is registering this filter chain in the web application. After that, it will be a representative for all its work to the Special Spring bean.
In Spring, all the objects maintained by the Spring IoC container are called beans. A bean is also one of the many objects in the application.
6. How do you plug Spring Security into servlet containers?
Spring Security uses the filter components of Java Servlet API. Servlets are used to handle all the requests from the web server and send them back responses. A filter chain is an object supplied by the servlet container to the developer that looks at the invocation chain of the filtered request for a resource.
Spring Security based on servlet filters. Inside it, there’s a filter chain where each of the filters features a particular responsibility. They have added or are far away from the configuration, counting on which services are required.
We have to hook the filter called DelegationFilterProxy in the filter chain in the servlet. And then process the security logic. After that, all the security logic will proceed through this filter chain called DelegationFilterProxy. All we need is having a servlet container to run the application. It is the way to implement or plugin spring security into the application.
7. What are the built-in Security Filters?
8. What are the modules of Spring Security?
- Spring Security
- Spring Security SAML
- Spring Security OAuth
- Spring Security Kerberos
- Spring Cloud Security
9. How does Spring Security authorization work?
Spring Security collects servlet filters that help you add authentication and authorization to your web application. It can also integrate with frameworks as well as standards.
10. What are the benefits of Spring Security?
There are various benefits we can gain by using spring security. Among them, these are the expected benefits, such as Spring security using the lightweight framework for the development. It takes care of dependents on various objects instead of creating them.
It supports Aspect-Oriented Programming so it can separate business logic from system services. In addition, it provides the most convenient API to translate the technology-specific exceptions to unchecked exceptions. Finally, spring Security uses the MVC framework, so it uses to create web applications capable of XML or JSON responses.
These are the very few as well as most important questions asked in the Spring Security Interview. Overall, we should understand what Spring Security is, and we should know how to configure Spring Security in Java Applications.
Frequently asked questions
- Is Spring Security secure?
Of course, it’s secure, and its actual work is to secure the application. And it is one of the most reliable and tested frameworks.
- What are the advantages of Spring Security?
It is an open-source security framework and easy for web developers to develop and unit test the applications. Easy to maintain and extend.
- What is the disadvantage of Spring Security?
The advantage of spring security is also a disadvantage for web developers. Because Spring Security provides various options to implement so the developers may be confused sometimes.
- Do we need Spring Security?
Spring Security is the best option to implement any application-level security in the applications. It provides authentication, authorization and prevents the applications from external attacks.
- Is Implementing spring security very difficult?
If the web developer starts a new project, he has to start from the beginning, like adding build path and configuring. So, it will seem very difficult for them. To end this difficulty, spring boot is the best solution.